Croton eluteria, known as cascarilla, is a plant species of the genus Croton that is native to the Caribbean. It has been naturalized in other tropical regions of the Americas. It grows to be a small tree or tall shrub, rarely reaching 20 feet (6 m) in height. Its leaves are scanty, alternate, ovate-lanceolate, averaging 2 inches (5 cm) long, with close scaling below, giving a metallic silver-bronze appearance, and scattered white scales above. The flowers are small, with white petals, and very fragrant, appearing in March and April. The scented bark is fissured, pale yellowish brown, and may be covered in lichen.
Cascarilla bark contains anything between 1% and 3% volatile oils, a unique series of diterpenoid compounds called cascarillins, lignins, tannin, and resins. There is also a long list of flavory terpene and diterpene compounds, including pinene, vanillin, D-limonene, and thujene.
It is a small tree rarely reaching 20 feet in height, with scanty, alternate, ovate-lanceolate leaves, averaging 2 inches long, closely-scaled below, giving a metallic silver-bronze appearance, with scattered, white scales above. The flowers are small, with white petals, and very fragrant, appearing in March and April. The scented bark is fissured, and pale yellowish brown. It is imported from Nassau, in New Providence.
The quills of dried bark average 2 inches in length, and 3/8 inch in thickness. They are often furrowed in both directions, so that they appear to be chequered. The outer, thin, corky layer is white, often covered with a fine lichen (Verrucaria albissima). The second layer is brownish, and sometimes shows through. The bark is hard and compact, breaking with a short, resinous fracture. The taste is nauseating, warm and bitter, and the odor agreeable and aromatic, especially when burned, resembling weak musk, so that it is used in fumigating pastilles, and sometimes mixed with tobacco, though in the latter case some regard it as being liable to cause giddiness and symptoms of intoxication.
Tonic and stimulant. Used in dyspepsia, flatulency, chronic diarrhea, in debility attending chronic diseases, convalescence from acute diseases, and to arrest vomiting. When cinchona produces nausea, the addition of cascarilla will prevent it. Dose of the powder, from 20 to 40 grains; of the tincture, from 1 to 4 fluid drachms; of the infusion, from 1 to 4 fluid ounces. On account of its musky odor, it is a common ingredient of fumigating pastilles.
A vast array of American plants encountered by Europeans were understood to hold important functions in internal medicine. Physicians conducted their own studies on drug plants that appeared to have beneficial effects on familiar problems in digestion and micturation. Most startling is the wide range of applications that were associated with a single plant, treating at least the symptoms of greatly differing medical conditions with the leaves, fruit, seeds, sap, bark, or roots.
This is a dissertation on Croton eluteria, a plant of the West Indies; its first chapter treats its American origin. Cascarilla is used to prepare an aromatic, bitter tonic, which may have narcotic properties. Applications include dyspepsia, intermittent and low fevers, diarrhoea, and dysentery. It is a stimulant to mucous membranes, and in chronic bronchitis is used as an expectorant. It is thought to be valuable in atonia dyspepsia, flatulence, chronic diarrhoea, debility, and convalescence. Added to cinchona, it will arrest vomiting caused by that drug. The leaves are used for a digestive tea, and the bark for a black dye. The sturdy bark has a strong scent and is also used in fumigating pastilles. When ground up and mixed with tobacco, it tends to cause giddiness and symptoms of intoxication in some persons. Nassau is a main source of cultivation for export.
Indigenous to the Amazon rainforest and to tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean, it has extensive medical applications for the leaves, bark, and root, including treatment of dysentery, internal bleeding, fever, intestinal worms, malaria, wounds, skin problems, stomach pain, etc. It was first identified by Europeans in 1530.
The name Croton comes from the Greek words for \"tick\" and Eleuteria from the name of one of the Bahamas, Eleuthera, near the island of Providence. Cascarilla trees are found on Crooked Island, Acklins, and Long Cay in the southern Bahamas. Campari liquor is made from bark. The tree trunks are soaked in the sea and beaten to soften the bark. The bush was born in the Caribbean. Now naturalized in many other tropical areas of Central and South America, it grows as a small tree, perhaps better described as a small shrub, rarely exceeding 20 feet or more.The Cascarilla Bark essential oil manufacturers in India use bark to obtain this oil. The main use of this high-quality oil is seen in aromatic men's perfumes in oriental styles and are also in fragrances
Ques. How does cascarilla tasteAns. Cascarilla tastes like industrial lime. It tastes like soft white earth with very few chemical residues. It's not edible, but some practitioners sometimes put it on their lips and tongue after swallowing it.Ques. Is Cascarilla Bark essential oil toxicAns. Very toxic and strong irritant, once used as a harsh laxative and irritant in human and veterinary medicine.
Cascarilla bark has been exported from the Bahamas for decades but the average Acklins and Crooked Islander receives a miniscule proportion of the true value of this unique resource, about $6 per pound. The dry rocky setting of the southern islands offer the best conditions in world for growing Cascarilla. The endemic species, Bahamian Cascarilla, (croton eluteria) generates such high potency Cascarilla essential oil that our bark is particularly valuable. This essential oil is used in a wide range of products including Campari Liquor. The oil has medicinal uses, is an insect repellant, and is sought after by the perfume industry. Compared to the bark, the oil is valued at many multiples per ounce.
A team of various stakeholders will be traveling to Acklins 23rd-30th November to begin the process. The purpose of the trip will include the preparation of a pilot scale extraction facility for potential commercial production; establishment of a nursery for the cascarilla plantation; and training of the new Acklins Island Cooperative Board. The announcement was made during a press conference held November 15, 2019.
The commercial cultivation of cascarilla on selected Family Islands is one such activity, said Mr. Bowleg. If domestic production of cascarilla oil is established, the processor will require a secure supply of cascarilla bark. As cascarilla bark is harvested from the wild, security of supply will only be guaranteed if commercial cultivation of the plant is started.
The cascarilla plant is used in the production of Campari, and as an essential oil. It can be used in medicines and perfumes among other commodities. The Bahamas currently exports the cascarilla bark to the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany and the United States.
Three new diterpenoids belonging to the clerodane (2-3) and halimane (4) structural types have been isolated from the bark of Croton eluteria Bennet, commonly known as cascarilla. Their structures have been fully characterized by spectroscopic means. Cascarilla extract and its major component, cascarillin, were found to significantly increase histamine-induced gastric acid secretion in the mouse stomach. These preliminary results provide the first rationale for the use of cascarilla in bitter preparations aimed at improving digestion.
The ministry is seeking to increase the export of cascarilla bark and oil, which it believes would increase economic activity on that island, create jobs and potentially develop a cascarilla plant industry, essentially carving out a space for The Bahamas in the multibillion-dollar essential oils industry.
According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Marine Resources, The Bahamas is currently only exporting cascarilla bark to the United Kingdom, Italy, France, the United States and Germany. There are no true benefits accrued to the country from the value-added products.
Cascarilla is indigenous to The Bahamas and is found more abundantly on Acklins, Crooked Island and Cat Island. The cascarilla plant is used in the production of the alcoholic liqueur Campari and as an essential oil, it can be used in medicines and perfumes, among other commodities.
The team also plans to establish a nursery for a cascarilla plantation with the help of the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute (CARDI) and the Bahamas Agriculture and Marine Science Institute (BAMSI).
Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Imagesimages@wellcome.ac.uk bark plant (Croton eluteria): flowering stem, bark and floral segments. Reproduction of a coloured engraving by J. Lambert, c. 1844, after P. Turpin.1844 By: Pierre Jean Francois Turpinafter: James Lambert and Francois Pierre ChaumetonPublished: -
The recipe remains a closely guarded secret known by only a handful of people, and is so guarded that the factory director mixes the ingredients in a special blending room in Milan and this concentrate is then shipped to other Campari production facilities in Brazil, France and Switzerland. The company will only confirm bitter orange peel is part of the recipe but it is also believed to contain: quinine, rhubarb, ginseng, chinotto (myrtle-leaved orange tree) and Cascarilla bark.
Description: This is a pure therapeutic-quality aromatherapy essential oil produced using wild-crafted plants and traditional methods from El Salvador, and is obtained from the bark of the tree.
A cure of sorts was discovered, but it was expensive and hard to get. It was the quinine plant. Soon, fraudsters began selling many worthless tree barks in Europe, passing all sorts of old bark off as the genuine quinine. 59ce067264